Written by: S.Z.Mammadova and N.A.Ismayilova, ANAS Institute of Soilscience and Agrochemistry, Baku, Azerbaijan
Abstract: The paper is concerned with the ecological terror that happened by Armenian forces in the Jabrayil district for near 30 years. Entering the territory is impossible that’s why all the study has been carried out based on the aerospace materials gained from remote sensing monitoring. The natural resources and infrastructure have been ruined by Armenians. The ecosystem of the region has been frozen after this terror which was unseen anywhere. As a result of the monitoring, it was revealed that the land cover has lost the property kinds in the local legal sphere once was done during land reform 30 years ago. Besides the biodiversity of the district, a great deal of historical and cultural monuments, museums, and old buildings was destroyed completely. Today neither nature nor history exists in the Jabrayil district. We found nothing to study in the region except remnants of war. Finally, certain researches have to be carried out in the region after the II Karabagh War after the land area has been cleaned from the mines.
Generally, Azerbaijan has got 66 districts including Garayil one which is located in the southwest part of the country within the Eastern Zangazur Economic Region determined to the President’s decree signed 2021 July 7[2,6]. The borders of the district are surrounded by Khajavand, Fuzuli, Qubadli, Zangilan and Iran Islam Republic. Gabriel has been ruined by the Armenian occupants for a long time and rebuilding is demanded in the territory. Till this occupation, the amount of population was near 81700 persons. The name of Jabrayil was taken from the name of the village Jabrayil which was the centre of the region. Father Jabrayil, who was the founder of the village Jabrayil, was one of the closes of the ruler by name Sultan Ahmed who lived in the VIII century and the territories between Ziyaret Mountain and the river Araz belonged to Father Jabrayil and his sons [1,6,7]. Historically the region is the agrarian one several crops were cultured in the region up to today including cotton, grapes, wheat, balers, fruit trees, berries and so on. At present to travel is impossible to the territory, the mine cleaning process will take about 10 minutes at least.
The First Karabagh War:
The territory was occupied by Armenian forces on August 23, 1993, during the First Daglig-Karabakh War the district was within Hadrut Province except for Jojug Marjanly  village. This village was the district’s provisional centre till the last recapture. The region area was 1,050 km2 before occupation having 92 villages. There were 72 middle schools, 8 hospitals, five mosques, two museums, 120 historical monuments, and 149 cultural  centres in the district, today there is no one of mentioned above.
After the Second Karabag War:
On October 9, 2020, the Azerbaijani Ministry of Defense announced military action to save the recaptured districts [2,7]. On October 20, 2020, Safarsha, Hesengaydi, Fuganli, Imambaghi, Dash
Veysalli, Aghtepe, and Yarakhmedli villages were recaptured [1,7]. The territory was destroyed fully during Armenian forces’ capture many times. The area became fought polygon for many years, rebuilt of the region demands too much labour by the Azerbaijan Republic. The ecological terror happened in the Jabrayil area and the local populations become refugees, and the accommodations were ruined. According to the State Statistics Committee of Azerbaijan Republic for 2013, there was 1 city, 4 settlements and 92 villages in the district having 1050 km2area [1,2,5].
Soil definitions for properties, ecosystems, and water basins have been wasted and under danger now. Forests saving the fields, gardens other green lands were cut and ruined which caused the deforestation and desertification processes in the territory. The governmental strategic organizations are being recovered now to control the infrastructure of the district. Having realized recapture in the territory real scene of the district is unbelievable. One of them was given below in the real picture.
Figure 1. Jabrayil’s Khudafarin village after the Occupation .
As seen from the picture all the accommodations, settlements, and buildings were destroyed during the Armenian occupation. The trees and bushes around the houses. Fields protecting woodlands have been cut and burned purposely. The historical enemy policy of the Armenian republic caused this scene after all. At present, the soil cover of the region is in bad condition. There are mainly chestnut and dark chestnut soil types which are effective for the agrarian field. Historically wheat, cotton, flax, barley, grapes and other plants were cultivated [5,7] but now these soils should be studied again to develop land distribution including personal properties. The infrastructure of the region has been destroyed and only old walls of the houses and buildings are existing here. The district is an agricultural region because of the natural situation. Therefore, in order to rehabilitate the biodiversity quality indexes of soils and agro-irrigation methods, soil sanitation, economic and ecological estimation of the soil state. That’s why soil investigations have to be realized step by step. The monitoring process for biodiversity kinds can be carried out on the base of GİS materials at distance observation. While comparing old archive materials with modern aerospace ones, the real risks and hazardous dangers become evident. The territory of the region needs fundamental investigations to recover the biodiversity fully in further.
Materials and methods
The tale of biodiversity recovery depends on the soil state, however. As the initial research distance observation, the GIS-based materials are helpful to analyze the current state. Forest and green land line’s total area covers only 0,24% of the territory which means the territory has been fully deforested. The tree cover rehabilitation was realized through the self-growing process of trees and bushes. No one tree was planted vice versa the cutting process has been realized for a long time in the area. It is impossible to speak about the state status of the soil distributions here. In any way, an initial fundamental soil study has to be realized and the quality indexes of them are to be revealed to make the classification in soil cadaster. Further land reform is to be organized on the base of the soil investigation. If none of the research in soils study has been realized this process can never be carried out. All recovery deeds depend directly on the soil study and soil expeditions or the stationaries’ actions in the territory. Today Azerbaijan scientists have only one way to study the district area’s geographical situation. According to the aerospace materials, the forest potential of the district isn’t existing at present because of having been cut for a long time.
Map 1. The real scene of Jabrayil region by Google Earth [3,4].
On the map, the district area’s current status is completely seen that the severe military erosion, desertification, and deforestation existing in the territory. In any way, the investigations’ results are in our hands. the current aerospace materials and the former ones are compared and the final monitoring has been realized. The problems happened in biodiversity should be determined and solved after long-term research in the district area.
While analyzing the distance observation materials and the fond, archive ones very interesting facts have been revealed. NASA Access Viewer base date gives us the climatological database for soil and land cover in any format so tabled form and as the graphics, dependences. Due to the former statics’ information and soil reports the soil map of the region was developed and given here.
Map 2. Soil Map of Jabrayil District Scale 1:600 000
The soil map was developed after the final war due to the distance observation and aerospace materials based on the achieved map. Totally there are 6 soil types in the district as mentioned in the soil map legend. They are typically brown mountain forest soil, carbonated and stepped brown mountain forest soil, dark and ordinary mountain grey-brown soil, locally humus-sulphate and undeveloped mountain chess-nut soil, and flood plain alluvial meadow soil. Annual and monthly agrarian climatological data and index have been gotten from the long-term monitoring results. Depending on the atmosphere precipitations moisture index is the main factor for soil cover.
To the NASA data access viewer dealing agroclimatology section , soil profile moisture graphically from 1981 up to the present (2020) was obtained and given below.
Figure 1. Soil Profile Moisture degree for Jabrayil region.
As seen from the graphic the moisture in the soil profile has been higher from 1981 till 1993. The hazardous changing in biodiversity, local ecosystem, and natural zones show that A fundamental investigation has to be carried out and this problem will be actual for many years.
By realizing the monitoring in Jabrayil district, the current situation shows that the area is being investigated from all facets. Climate conditions, soil cover, and all kinds of biodiversity states need to be studied for a long time. After the mine cleaning in the Jabrayil region, these deeds can be realized.
R E F E R E N C E
- Azerbaijan Ecological Atlas. Baki, 2009. 2. Azerbaijan National Atlas. Baku, 2014.
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economic_regions_of_Azerbaijan https://az.wikipedia.org/wiki/C%C9%99bray%C4%B1l%C4%B1n_azad_edilm%C 9%99si