Written by: Ms. Alina Khalid PRCCSF Fellow, Islamabad

Improvements in science and culture have been ongoing in Uzbekistan since ancient times. In particular, there were commonly grown sciences like astronomy, mathematics, medicine, physics, history, reasoning, etymology, writing, and specialties like figure painting, weaving, pottery, and glass manufacturing. One of the largest scientific and social centres of the East between the ninth and tenth centuries was Central Asia, where the first scientific expedition groups as well as foundations and scientific networks resembling modern institutes were established. The advancement of the natural and exact sciences was rapid during the ninth and fifteenth centuries. In some areas, the level of exploration sought after by Muhammad al-Khwarizmi, Ahmad al-Fergani, Abu Nasr Farabi, Abu Rayhan Beruni, Mahmud of Kashgar, Abu Ali Ibn Sina (Avicenna), Nasriddin Tusi, Qazi-zadeh Rumi, Jamshid Kashi, Ulughbeg, Ali Kushchi, and other researchers from the East was significantly higher than the results of work directed in.

 ULUGH BEG (Born: 1393, Soltaniyeh, Timurid, Persia; Died: October 1449, Samarkand, Timurid Empire)
Ulugh Beg was the very first astronomer and a supporter of science. Timurid astronomer Ulugh Beg produced some of his time’s outstanding astronomical senses. In Samarkand, he established a madrasa, which had a rigid daily programme. In contrast to other madrasas, science and astronomy were among the primary disciplines taught here. The building is genuinely present at Registan Square. On a rocky ridge outside of Samarkand, he built his own observatory. The Fakhr sextant, a huge sextant, served as the observatory of Ulugh Beg’s main tool. The primary observational astronomer of the fifteenth century was unquestionably Ulugh Beg. He has a dedicatory stamp from the Russians. The 1987 USSR stamp translates “Uzbek astronomer and mathematician Ulugbek” from Russian. Ulugh Beg was ultimately revived by his nephew Abdallah Mirza, who buried Ulugh Beg’s remains in the Tamerlane catacomb in Samarkand. . He also left a huge mark on astronomy over its whole history and in Central Asia, where he was revered.

JAMSHID – AL – KASHI  (Born: about 1380 Died: 1436 in Samarkand, now Uzbekistan)
After the death of Ulugh Beg, Timur, who had proclaimed himself emperor and restorer of the Mongol state at Samarkand in 1370, was razing vast areas of Muslim territory as al-Kashi was growing up. He was his student.  As we most likely know from his Khaqani zij, the main event in al-life Kashi’s was his observation of a lunar eclipse in Kashan. Sullam Al-Sama (The Stairway of Heaven, on Resolution of Difficulties Met by Predecessors in the Determination of Distances and Sizes), his composition, was completed (of the magnificent bodies). Years after the occurrence, as shown by the replica in the British exhibition hall, his Mukhtasar dar ilm-I-hayat (Compendium of the Science of Astronomy) was dedicated to Sultan Iskander. Al-Kashi was working as a doctor to increase his income until Ulugh Beg gave him a job that would last forever. Ulugh then sought out the brightest researchers to help with his logical endeavours. At this Samarkand institution of learning, Ulugh Beg welcomed Al-Kashi, as well as some sixty other researchers, including Qadi Zada. Al-Kashi continues to be renowned for his astounding numerical outcome. He calculated 2 [pi] to nine sexagesimal places and translated this into sixteen decimal places in his composition Risala al-Muhitiya (Treatise on the Circumference). This was a success that was far greater than anything the ancient Greeks or the Chinese had ever achieved.

IBN – E – SINA  (Born: August 980 AD, Afshona, Uzbekistan; Died: June 22, 1037, Hamedan, Iran)
Apart from the astronomical inventions done by Ulugh Beg and Jamshid – al – Kashi, Ibn e Sina became the very first person who studied medicine in such depth.  Ibn Sina, regarded as the Prince of Doctors and the Aristotle of Muslims, was a scholar, logician, specialist, and author. He was designated AL Shaikh ALRais, the third expert educator after Aristotle and Al-Farabi. He continued with his studies, focusing on phonetics, logic, reasoning, theory, and medicine. He was well-known as an expert at the age of 17, and he then started to visit his area and order books. By the time he was 20, he was a well-known expert in math, theory, space science, and medicine. Ibn Sina had a wide range of scholarly and artistic activities. He performed astronomical investigations while he was in Isfahan and afterwards in Hamdan. In the realm of space research, he was able to see Planet Venus pass through the plate of the solar circle outwards, which was later confirmed by the English cosmologist “Jeremiah Rocks” in the seventeenth century. Ibn Sina also worked in astronomy, advanced it, and developed machinery for glitches that had never occurred. Ibn Sina made numerous noteworthy contributions to science. It is quite valuable for topography, especially for the metal and rock and mountain structures. Ibn Sina had a particular interest in phytology and conducted in-depth scientific research on the topic of healing plants. He conducted careful, scientific inspections of plant roots, leaves, and blooms and carefully, scientifically illustrated them. In his own groupings of six arrangements of single and complex medications, he specifically referred to the outstanding book Canon in Medicine, which is highly regarded by academics in medicine and pharmacy. His obsession with research did not prevent him from being committed to sharing his experiences in the open. He shared his general public’s concerns, contributed to its scholarly debates, and supported its scientific and civilizational renaissance.

As of right now, scientists in Uzbekistan are effectively examining the scientific legacy left by earlier scientists, advancing science with their fresh discoveries, and making a crucial commitment to global science. The Republic of Uzbekistan is aggressively searching the globe for academic artefacts related to the nation’s experiences. This aggressive arrangement includes numerous international researchers. The area that is now known as Uzbekistan has seen several heroic surges of traders and travellers over a period of more than 3,000 years, including Persians, Genghis Khan’s Mongols, Turks, Alexander the Great’s Macedonians, Muslim Arabs, and eventually Russians. Apart from these emperors, if we talk about the scientists and their legacies, Uzbekistan has seen many great scientists as we have discussed above. All had a significant impact in some way, some in design and others in writing, science, and creative expression. We can continue to follow the researchers’ customs. Currently, their contributions have made a significant impact in a wide range of subjects, such as Ibn e Sina’s contributions to medicine, cosmology, and many sciences, Ulugh Beg’s contributions to astronomy and Jamshid al Kashi’s contributions to math specifically. The youth should be taught about modernity in Islamic history using the theories and research of these scholars as examples.

This conclusion supports the relationship between the growth of science and the advancement of every nation and civilization. It is crucial to think carefully about science and education because it will ultimately determine each nation’s fate. The light of the mind is science. It exhorts people to perceive their reality, comprehend the profound and material world, and significantly shape their reasoning. Science is the light of existence. Science enhances people’s lives and removes obliviousness’s concentration from them. Nobody can deny this because history provides strong evidence for it. Now that we have such great inventions by the Uzbek scholars, we have great opportunities to further work on them. In light of the previous conversations, if we talk about our country Pakistan and the opportunities we get here in the field of science and astronomy, we can say that we do not have enough opportunities here. This has a negative impact on the students and youth as they’ll not remember the Muslim contributions and forget their legacy. We must never lose sight of the fact that the First and Second Renaissances produced a generation of outstanding scientists who illuminated the world with their discoveries. The Qur’an and the Hadith, which are the cornerstones of our religion, emphasize the supreme significance of science and scholars. We acknowledge the importance of science in paving the path for the Third Renaissance to emerge in Uzbekistan.

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